Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos
Workshop en Ingeniería de Requerimientos
Workshop on Requirements Engineering

Anais do WER V. 5, 2002. Valencia - Espanha

Expediente    Contato

@proceedings{WERpapers: WER02,
  editores = {Oscar Pastor López (UPV, España), Juan Sanchez Diaz (UPV, España)},
  title = {Anais do WER02 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Valencia, Espanha, Novembro 11-12, 2002},
  publisher = {},
  ISBN = {84-96023-01-X},
  ISSN = {2675-0066},
  year = {2002}

1 - Capturing Web Application Requirements through Goal-Oriented Analysis. D. Bolchini, P. Paolini. pp. 16-28, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: New conceptual tools for effectively supporting the activity of requirements analysis of web applications are needed. Current approaches and model in Requirements Engineering (RE) can be tailored and extended in order to cope with the following distinctive features of interactive and hypermediaintensive web applications: a) high-level communication and business goals have to be addressed and carefully analyzed as an integral part of requirements management; b) goals and needs of the stakeholders need to be tied up with design in a coherent fashion, bridging the current gap between requirements and hypermedia specifications; c) lightweight, usable and informal models are needed for web designers and analysts with no engineering background. Starting from key achievements in RE this paper introduces a light-weight methodology blending goal-directed RE and scenario-based techniques. The core elements of the methodology will be illustrated through a real project experience.

2 - Writing Use Cases Modelled with Situation Theory. F.A.C. Pinheiro, I.D. López. pp. 29-39, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: This article extends a framework intended to simplify the generation of use cases. The framework allows a concrete and systematic way of describing actions by means of a use case pattern and simple natural language sentences. The framework is composed of a pattern for specifying a use case and a set of guidelines for writing the sentences describing it. These guidelines help the specifier to write natural language sentences that may be easy and uniformly understood. The extension presented in this article uses situation theory to formalise the use cases as situations and to translate the simple sentences into situation theoretic concepts. This article refers to PROSIT, a computational implementation of situation theory, to show how use cases can be described in terms of situation theory.

3 - Enhancing Data Warehouse Design with the NFR Framework. F.R.S. Paim, J.F.B. Castro. pp. 40-57, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: In recent years, Data Warehouse has emerged as a powerful technology for integrating heterogeneous data into a multidimensional repository on behalf of decision-support analysis. The complex extraction, transformation and loading process involved, as well as the aggregational-intensive queries are governed by a multitude of quality factors such as integrity, accessibility, performance, and other domain-specific non-functional requirements (NFRs). This clearly advocates the use of an NFR approach in support of building a high-quality data warehouse specification. In this work we extend the NFR Framework [3] to define catalogues of major data warehouse NFR types and related operational methods, for latter reuse during the specification stage. We illustrate the contributions of our approach in a case study on a large data warehouse project.

4 - Metamodeling for Requirements Reuse. O. López, M.A. Laguna, F.J. Garcia. pp. 76-90, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Correct requirements determination is a critical factor in software development as it takes resources and it is an error prone activity which can bring tragic consequences to the rest of the software life cycle. Having stored reusable requirements elements, both qualified and classified, in a repository might contribute to taking advantage of software development resources and to reducing the error probability in requirements specifications. However, the diversity of notations and formats, as well as the existence of different levels of requirements description make requirements reuse difficult. In this paper we present a metamodel to integrate some different types of semiformal diagrams into a requirements reuse approach. The description of reusable elements constitutes the basis for benefiting from diverse representations of requirements in the development of specifications by reusing requirements.

5 - Support for Structuring Mechanisms in the integration of Organizational Requirements and Object Oriented Modeling. F.M.R. Alencar, G.A.A. Cysneiros Filho, J.F.B. Castro. pp. 147-161, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: The success of computer applications depends on a good understanding of the organizational environment. Requirement modeling techniques may be used to help to understand the organizational process. In recent years, we have observed a growing influence of the object-orientation paradigm. Unfortunately the dominant technique of object oriented modeling UML (Unified Modeling Language) is ill equipped to represent the organizational requirements. We advocate the use of the i* technique to model organizational requirements in terms of the organizational relationships among the several organizational actors, as well as a means for understanding the rationale for the decision-making. In this paper we discuss some improved guidelines for the integration of early and late requirements specifications. We also present a prototype tool (GOOD - Goal Object Oriented Development) which support the mapping of i* organizational models stored in a Telos repository by the OME tool into UML elements modeled by the Rational Rose tool.

6 - Modeling Organizational Architectural Styles in UML: The Tropos Case. C.T.L.L. Silva, J.F.B. Castro. pp. 162-176, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Today’s software operate in a dynamic, organizational context and hence, it needs flexible architectures based in social and intentional concepts to enable software to evolve consistently with its operational environment. The Tropos requirements oriented development methodology, has defined a number of organizational architectural styles which are suitable to cooperative, dynamic and distributed applications. In this paper, we use the UML to describe these novel architectural styles. In doing so we are able to provide a detailed representation of both the structure and behaviour of the styles.

7 - Specifying Cooperation Environment Requirements using Formal and Graphical Techniques. M. Sánchez-Alonso, J.M. Murillo. pp. 225-239, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Using formal languages to specify system requirements guarantees the correctness of systems specifications. However, having correct specifications does not guarantee such specification matching user requirements. To guarantee such matching, users are required to validate formal specifications. This is a difficult task because, usually, users are unaware of notations. This work focus on this problem, in particular the validation of formal specifications of complex coordinated systems. To make the user’s validation easier, a new graphic technique to represent the dependencies in a coordinated environment is proposed. This graphic (and visual) technique increases users’ understanding whilst lack of precisions is avoided. In fact, the proposed graphics correspond with visual representations of formal Maude specifications. Besides, taking advantage of the features of Maude, the system simulation is supported by the execution of Maude specifications. Thus, users are allowed to check whether the system produces the expected results.

8 - Supporting Cooperative Requirements Engineering with an Automated Tool. D.F. Togneri, R. de A. Falbo, C. S. de Menezes. pp. 240-254, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Requirements Engineering – one of the macro -activities of Sofware Engineering – is a systematic process of capturing, modeling and documenting requirements through an iteractive and cooperative approach[13]. It’s an activity which require s team work. Groups of people formulate requirements, design and implement a system and execute quality assurance activities during the software process[28]. The cooperative work becomes necessary since solutions require different knowledge and professionals become more specialized[3]. Viewing these aspects, it’s worthwhile to use computational resources to support the cooperative Requirements Engineering activities. The area of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is interested in how groups of people working on a cooperative basis can be assisted by computational support[28]. This work investigates how solutions from the CSCW area can support Requirements Engineering activities and introduces CRETA – a Cooperative Requirements Engineering support tool, which intends to integrate groupware applications into applications supporting Requirements Engineering. This tool was developed for the Web, using the object-orientation paradigm.

9 - Using Quality Models for Assessing COTS Selection. P. Botella, X. Burgués, J.P. Carvallo, X. Franch, C. Quer. pp. 263--277, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: We present in this paper a framework embracing different aspects involved in COTS component selection that influence the success of this activity. Playing a crucial role in this framework appears the concept of quality model, aimed at structuring the description of the quality of COTS components. We propose a methodology for building quality models based on the ISO/IEC 9126-1 standard which allows to create hierarchies of models appropriate for categories and domains of COTS components, and also for particular contexts of COTS selection activities. Such quality models facilitate the expression and refinement of quality requirements during COTS selection. We present also a formal notation for expressing these quality models, the quality requirements and the product descriptions themselves; the notation supports model analysis and makes feasible tool support during COTS selection. Last, we enumerate at the conclusions some issues matter of current and future research.

10 - Using Constraint Programming for the Automatic Detection of Conflicts in Quality Requirements. A. Ruiz-Cortés, A. Durán, R. Corchuelo, M. Toro. pp. 299-309, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Requirements negotiation is quite an interesting, ongoing research area. Current requirements engineering models usually propose a negotiation process with similar methods and goals. Unfortunately, only a few have partial automatic support. In this paper, we revisit one of the most mature models, Boehm’s Win–Win model. Win–Win is a qualitative, process–oriented model so that it is specially suited to be used at the early stages of requirements engineering, when knowledge about requirements is still vague, but not for quantitative, product–oriented contexts where a more precise, exact knowledge about the requirements is needed. In this paper, we present a proposal to extend and refine Win–Win in order it can be used in product–oriented contexts. The main benefit of our approach is that the same conceptual model for requirements negotiation can be used during all software development process, instead of using different models in different phases.

11 - Modelo de Integração de Especificações: Transformação de Use Cases em Tipos Abstratos de Dados. L.A. Martins, G.S. Rangel, D.J. Nunes. pp. 1-15, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Durante o processo de desenvolvimento de software, o sistema é especificado em diversos formatos e linguagens. No contexto da engenharia de requisitos, o sistema é especificado através de representações meramente informais ou semi-formais, pois um dos objetivos nesta fase é a comunicação com o cliente da aplicação, por isso a necessidade de formatos de representação intuitivos e não formais. A medida que o processo avança, o ideal seria a transformação das especificação informais e/ou semi-formais em representações formais, baseadas em modelos matemáticos, com sintaxe e semântica bem definidas, o que possibilita a verificação automatizada das especificações e o projeto formal do software. Dessa forma, a tendência seria a redução de erros e inconsistências nas especificações, reduzindo o tempo e os custos do projeto. Para atingir tal meta, é necessário uma metodologia eficiente para garantir a passagem correta entre especificações de requisitos e especificações formais. Este artigo trata exatamente deste problema, propondo um modelo de integração composto por uma metodologia e um conjunto de heurísticas, que combina use cases (modelo de especificação semi-formal orientado ao cliente), com tipos abstratos de dados (modelo de especificação algébrica orientado ao sistema). Para validar a proposta, é apresentado um estudo de caso ao final do artigo.

12 - VRU: Un Método para Validar Requisitos y Generar Interfaces de Usuario Multiplataforma. J. Sánchez, J. Belenguer, P. Belenguer, D. Pascual. pp. 58-75, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: En el artículo se presenta un método de desarrollo de software que permite por una parte validar requisitos de usuario mediante prototipación automática y por otra generar interfaces de usuario. La generación de las interfaces utiliza como lenguaje intermedio el lenguaje de marcado UIML. Una interfaz en UIML puede ser traducida a diversas plataformas, lenguajes y sistemas operativos. El método es consistente con cualquier método de producción de software que utilice una capa de casos de uso y alguna variante de los diagramas de secuencia para mostrar las interacciones internas en el sistema. La ventaja de la propuesta radica en la utilización de una única definición de interfaz de usuario, que luego puede ser traducida y animada en diversos entornos. Las interfaces, con pequeñas modificaciones, pueden formar parte del producto software final.

13 - Transformación de Especificación de Requisitos en Esquemas Conceptuales usando Diagramas de Interacción. E. Insfrán, E. Tejadillos, S. Martí, M. Burbano. pp. 91-105, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: En el ámbito de la Ingeniería del Software, diversos métodos han sido propuestos para la especificación y modelado de requisitos y el modelado conceptual. En este trabajo se presenta un Proceso de Análisis de Requisitos (PAR) que permite refinar una Especificación de Requisitos representada mediante Casos de Uso utilizando Diagramas de Secuencia extendidos con estereotipos de UML. Se define además, un conjunto de reglas que facilita la trazabilidad de los elementos de la Especificación de Requisitos a una representación equivalente en el Esquema Conceptual.

14 - Fuentes Utilizadas por desarrolladores de Software en Argentina para Elicitar Requerimientos. L. Antonelli, A. Oliveros. pp. 106-116, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Este artículo analiza cuales son las fuentes de requerimientos utilizadas por los desarrolladores de software en la Argentina. Realizamos una encuesta a 38 personas con formación académica y experiencia en la industria. Estas personas tomaron un curso de ingeniería de requerimientos de la maestría en Ingeniería de Software de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata en el año 2001. Al final del curso les pedimos que completen un cuestionario. Los participantes, basándose en su experiencia y en los conocimientos adquiridos durante el curso, respondieron a preguntas sobre su educación académica, experiencia profesional y, técnicas y fuentes utilizadas para elicitar requerimientos. Los resultados muestran que las fuentes utilizadas son principalmente las personas y los formularios.

15 - Comprendiendo el Universo de Discurso Futuro con Escenarios. J.H. Doorn, G.D.S. Hadad, G.N. Kaplan. pp. 117-131, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: La definición de requisitos es meramente el producto final de la fase de requisitos, pero es el punto de partida basamental para el diseño del software y para la tarea de seguimiento de requisitos, y además en muchos casos es un documento contractual con los clientes. Para lograr una correcta definición, no sólo es necesario comprender el Universo de Discurso presente sino también comprender el Universo de Discurso futuro. Se plantean en este artículo alternativas para la construcción de Escenarios Futuros, utilizando los mismos como medio de representación parcial del Universo de Discurso futuro en el que se asume la presencia del sistema de software que se planifica desarrollar.

16 - Modelado de Anomalías mediante Escenarios. M. Ridao, J. Doorn. pp. 132-146, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: La importancia del manejo de anomalías por parte de los artefactos de software y el impacto que aquéllas provocan en el desarrollo de los mismos es ampliamente reconocida. El ingeniero de software no sólo debe esforzarse por lograr la máxima confiabilidad del sistema en condiciones de uso normal, sino también tratar de proteger la aplicación de los inconvenientes que surgen del uso de la misma bajo condiciones adversas. Sin embargo, las circunstancias anómalas en las que se va a desempeñar el software son muy poco percibidas en la elicitación de requisitos del Universo de Discurso (UdeD). La Ingeniería de Requisitos se interesa en la elicitación, modelado y análisis de las características que el sistema a desarrollar debe presentar. La falta de anticipación de contextos excepcionales da por resultado requisitos no realistas, inalcanzables y/o incompletos. Como consecuencia, el software desarrollado a partir de esos requisitos no será lo suficientemente robusto, con consecuencias a menudo críticas. En el presente artículo, se analizan las diferentes formas de representación de anomalías utilizando Escenarios y los beneficios que se pueden obtener utilizando patrones.

17 - Generación de Especificaciones de Requisitos de Software a Partir de Modelos de Negocios: Un Enfoque. H. Estrada, A. Martinez, O. Pastor, J. Sanchez. pp. 177-193, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Los trabajos de investigación actuales en ingeniería de requisitos buscan mecanismos que permitan establecer la relación entre la funcionalidad esperada de un sistema de información y los procesos de negocios a los que éste dará soporte. Este enfoque permitirá asegurar que el sistema de información a desarrollar sea realmente útil en las tareas de los actores organizacionales. Los trabajos de investigación en esta área han determinado que las metas organizacionales son una buena base para establecer la relación entre los objetivos perseguidos por el negocio y los requisitos del sistema de información a desarrollar, ya que todos estos requisitos (funcionales y no funcionales) deben corresponderse con tareas que se desean desempeñar dentro de un proceso de negocios. Los procesos de negocio a su vez, permiten el cumplimiento o satisfacción de alguna o algunas de las metas del negocio. En este trabajo se presenta una propuesta para la obtención de requisitos de software a partir de modelos de negocios. El artículo se divide en dos secciones principales: (a) la construcción de modelos de negocios a partir de un análisis orientado a metas (b) la obtención de un modelo de requisitos de software a partir del modelo de negocios. Este trabajo permite tener un punto de partida sólido para la construcción del sistema de información, donde cada requisito tiene su origen en las metas del negocio.

18 - Uma Proposta para Melhorar o Rastreamento de Requisitos. M. Toranzo, J.F.B. Castro, E. Mello. pp. 194-209, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Many contributions concerned with software quality (DoD-2167A, ISO 9000-3 and Capability Maturity Model) mandate that requirements traceability be practiced. However, they do not provide a model of what information should be captures and used as a part of requirements traceability model. This paper provides an framework to improve the requirements traceability.

19 - SmartTrace: Una Herramienta para Trazabilidad de Requisitos en Proyectos basados en UML. V. Anaya, P. Letelier. pp. 210-224, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: La trazabilidad de requisitos es un proceso clave para la exitosa gestión de los requisitos de un sistema de información. A pesar de ello, no existe un consenso acerca de los tipos de especificaciones y enlaces entre éstos que deben usarse en un proceso de trazabilidad. Además, a pesar de la existencia de herramientas específicas para la gestión de requisitos, éstas no proven mecanismos adecuados para la configuración de la trazabilidad de acuerdo con las necesidades específicas del proyecto. En este artículo se presenta SmarTTrace, una herramienta que aprovecha los mecanismos de extensión proporcionados por la CASE Rational Rose para incorporar a ésta las tareas de configuración, especificación y explotación de trazabilidad en un proceso de desarrollo. Para ilustrar la funcionalidad de SmarTTrace respecto a dichas tareas se ha propuesto un pequeño ejemplo basado en el proceso Rational Unified Process.

20 - Relato de Experiência de Ensino de Engenharia de Requisitos em um Curso de Mestrado em Sistemas de Informação. L.E.G. Martins, . pp. 255-262, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Este artigo apresenta um relato de experiência de ensino de Engenharia de Requisitos em um curso de Mestrado em Sistemas de Informação. O objetivo deste relato é discutir alguns indicativos sobre a área de Engenharia de Requisitos que emergiram ao longo da disciplina ministrada, tais como: relevância e aplicabilidade da Engenharia de Requisitos nas atividades profissionais exercidas pelos mestrandos, preferências de interesse sobre as atividades da Engenharia de Requisitos, preferências sobre o uso de algumas técnicas de Engenharia de Requisitos, entre outros. Estes indicativos foram obtidos a partir de dados coletados nos seminários e estudos de caso realizados pelos alunos, e de um questionário aplicado aos alunos no final da disciplina.

21 - Medição de Pontos por Função a Partir da Especificação de Requisitos. H.C.A.B. Tavares, A.E.S. Carvalho, J.F.B. Castro. pp. 278-298, DOI . [pdf] [scholar]

Abstract: Neste trabalho apresentaremos uma proposta para medição de Pontos por Função a partir da especificação de requisitos expressa em casos de uso, notação UML (Unified Modeling Language). Com esta medição torna-se disponível uma métrica confiável na fase de especificação de requisitos do processo de desenvolvimento de software. Esta proposta visa enfatizar a importância da especificação de requisitos para o trabalho de medição de sistemas, minimizando o esforço dos líderes de projeto, obtendo uma compreensão intuitiva do porte do projeto em termos de Pontos por Função de maneira simples e dinâmica. Verifica-se que caso de uso e pontos por função podem ser usados juntos efetivamente para alcançar sucesso no gerenciamento dos requisitos e do projeto.