WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos 2008: Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain


Carme Quer, Juan Pablo Carvallo, Lyrene Fernandes da Silva (Ed.): Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008.

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@proceedings{WERpapers: WER08,
  editor = {Carme Quer, Juan Pablo Carvallo, Lyrene Fernandes da Silva},
  title = {Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008},
  publisher = { },
  ISBN = {978-84-7653-144-0},
  year = {2008}
}

Introduction

1 - Organization. wer08, . Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 1-5. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract:

2 - Table of Contents. wer08, . Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 6-9. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract:

3 - Preface. wer08, Juan Pablo Carvallo, Lyrene Fernandes Silva. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 9-10. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 0

Abstract:

Invited Talk

4 - Business-IT Alignment in Value Webs. Roel Wieringa, . Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 11. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Value webs are constellations of profit-and-loss responsible actors that have independent decision-making authority and that have decided to cooperate for a specific purpose. To the extent that the actors are independent, they each decide independently whether to participate in the network, and because they are profit-and loss responsible, this decision will be based on economic sustainability of the participation.

Process and Quality

5 - TRANSER: Ingeniería de Requisitos en un Desarrollo Orientado al Mercado.. Montse Ereño Incera, Jokin Arizmendi, Eusebi Calonge, Joxeja Oiarbide. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 15-24. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 4

Abstract: La industrialización del software se configura, desde hace ya algún tiempo, como una de las nuevas vías de desarrollo en el sector de las Tecnologías de la Información. Sin embargo, el mercado todavía está dando sus primeros pasos. La brecha entre el mundo académico y el mundo industrial es considerable dentro de este contexto. Mientras la comunidad investigadora avanza en el estudio de este nuevo enfoque de desarrollo, y en la definición de técnicas y modelos que lo soportan, la aplicación industrial encuentra innumerables escollos en su aplicación. Una de las mayores dificultades se encuentra en las fases iniciales del desarrollo. Es comúnmente aceptado que el éxito de los productos software se mide en base al grado de cumplimiento de las expectativas de los usuarios; por lo tanto, resulta crucial capturar dichas expectativas lo más fielmente posible. Esto, no resulta nada sencillo cuando el producto no va dirigido a un cliente concreto, sino a todo un sector del mercado. Este artículo muestra las conclusiones obtenidas tras la aplicación de una serie de prácticas de Ingeniería de Requisitos Orientada a Perspectivas (IROP) en un caso real de desarrollo orientado al mercado.

6 - Evaluación Empírica de la Estimación de Tamaño Funcional de Escenarios. Mabel Bertolami, Alejandro Oliveros. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 25-33. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: El uso creciente de las métricas de Puntos Función para la gestión de proyectos de software ha promovido el desarrollo de variantes del Análisis de Puntos Función para aproximar el tamaño funcional cuando la documentación, el tiempo o los recursos disponibles no permiten realizar el cálculo estándar. Scenario Function Points (SFP) es un procedimiento basado en el método IFPUG que permite estimar el tamaño funcional de los escenarios. En este artículo se presenta una validación empírica, sobre un sistema software ya implementado, y basada en la comparación entre el tamaño de los escenarios estimado por SFP y la medición del sistema con el método IFPUG. Esta última medición fue evaluada mediante el proceso de validación propuesto por Morris y Desharnais. Los resultados obtenidos son alentadores en cuanto a la capacidad de estimación de SFP y confirman la posibilidad y necesidad del plan de ampliar la experimentación sobre un mayor número de casos.

7 - Uma Proposta para Avaliação de Equipes de Requisitos. Milene Serrano, Fillipe Napolitano, Maurício Serrano, Eduardo Kinder, Mark Douglas, Danielle Loyola, Bruno Rezende, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 34-44. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Software Engineering has, as one of its main goals, the duty of helping software managers perform their jobs as better as possible. As such, technical management, which embodies software engineering expertise, is the central aspect in software management. Managing human resources is difficult for any production scheme, but is particular challenging for software, a knowledge intensive production process. This paper tackles the issue of evaluating requirements teams. An evaluation method is proposed to help managers better control their teams productivity. The proposed method stands on the shoulders of previous literature and on early feedback from its use in two laboratory projects conducted at PUC-Rio.

Requirements Analysis

8 - Aplicação de Técnicas de Leitura durante a Análise de Requisitos. Márcia Seabra Cabral, Fernanda Alencar, Jaelson Castro, Oscar Pastor, Juan Sánchez. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 193-204. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract: This paper describes the result work of the reading techniques application, Checklist and PBR, in the requirements analysis activity during the inspection process to help the inspectors to detect defects. The objective is to analyze the reading technique effectiveness. It presents the experiment result performed in the AMADeUs-MM requirements. será aceito ou não após a atividade de Validação de Requisitos.

9 - Can Rules of Inferences Resolve Coordination Ambiguity in Natural Language Requirements Specification?. Sri Fatimah Tjong, Daniel M. Berry. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 205-210. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract: Coordination ambiguity is the ambiguity that occurs from the use of coordinators such as and and or. The first author’s previous work tried to resolve coordination ambiguity in natural language (NL) requirements specifications (RSs) by using language patterns derived from rules of logic (RLs). However, a reevaluation of the language patterns show that RLs cannot fully resolve coordination ambiguity in a RS because the coordinators are not always truth functional, due to incompatible interpretations that a human ascribes to the ambiguous RS. Furthermore, human perceptions in the interpretation of the coordinators in a RS vary incredibly widely. The implications of this observation on requirements elicitation are discussed.

10 - Product Line Requirements: Multi-Paradigm Variability Models. Miguel A. Laguna, Bruno González-Baixauli. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 211-216. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 0

Abstract: One of the most important issues in the development of software product lines is the elicitation, management, and representation of the variability. In this context, one of the most used instruments is the feature model. But a feature model (due to the open definition of feature) usually contains an amalgamation of various different variability aspects as structural, behavioral, non-functional, or platform variability. We propose to separate these variability aspects of the product line, using other models as goals or UML diagrams but keeping features as the core model. The second part of the article explores the possibilities of identifying mappings between the feature models and the correspondent architectural counterparts. With these mappings, the automated creation of traceability links between the product line models is possible and hence the productivity in the development process of the product line will be enhanced. This approach also simplifies the separation in several development stages, using the appropriate paradigms as goals, features, package models, platforms…

11 - Designing a Simulator for the Training of Software Engineers in Global Requirements Elicitation. Miguel Romero, Aurora Vizcaíno, Mario Piattini. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 217-222. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 3

Abstract: The requirements elicitation process is particularly difficult in Global Software Development (GSD) environments owing principally to cultural differences and communication problems derived from the geographical distance that separates stakeholders. For this reason it is necessary to train professionals in the skills needed to confront a requirements elicitation process in a GSD environment. In this paper we present the generic and specific competences derived from our review of literature that a software engineer must have if s/he is to carry out requirements elicitation. We have used these skills to design a tool to support the teaching of requirements elicitation in GSD. This tool is a simulator which, by using virtual agents, will enable students and professionals to acquire a subset of the skills necessary for requirements elicitation in GSD.

Requirements Elicitation - Empirical Studies

12 - Engenharia de requisitos em ambientes distribuídos de desenvolvimento de software: resultados preliminares de um estudo etnográfico. Alline de Melo Lemos, Cleidson R. B. de Souza. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 85-95. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 4

Abstract: A indústria de software é uma das várias indústrias que tem sofrido alterações com o advento da globalização. A crescente demanda por software e a escassa mão-de-obra qualificada motivaram o surgimento do Desenvolvimento Distribuído de Software. Dentre os principais desafios a serem vencidos em projetos distribuídos de software, estão aqueles relacionados à Engenharia de Requisitos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados iniciais de um estudo empírico que está sendo realizado em uma organização de desenvolvimento de software que elicita, analisa e gerencia requisitos de clientes situados em locais diversos. Pretende-se com este artigo, sugerir recomendações para as dificuldades até então identificadas, na tentativa de melhorar o processo já adotado pela empresa em questão.

13 - Updating a Systematic Review about Selection of Software Requirements Elicitation Techniques. Oscar Dieste, Marta Lopez, Felicidad Ramos. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 96-103. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract: Quality of software products is closely related to the elicitation requirement process. Several studies point out that elicitation techniques achieve different results when applied in different contexts. This paper presents some recommendations about the situations in which elicitation techniques are useful. Recommendations are based on a previous systematic review, which was updated and expanded with 13 new empirical studies and more than 60 new empirical results. The aggregation process generated 5 new evidences and modified 4 existing ones. In the previous review, it was found that interviews were one of the most adequate techniques in most situations. The new evidence supports the same conclusion.

14 - Study of Elicitation Techniques Adequacy. Dante Carrizo, Oscar Dieste, Natalia Juristo. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 104-114. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Requirements engineers can make use of a great many techniques to elicit user needs. However, there is no comprehensive practical guide on how to select the best techniques for a particular contextual situation within a software development project. We propose a framework to support developer decision making on which are the best elicitation techniques for the project at hand. Our framework identifies which elicitation technique responds better to certain project features.

Requirements Elicitation - Methodologies and Tools

15 - A Methodology for Reducing Geographical Dispersion Problems during Global Requirements Elicitation. Gabriela N. Aranda, Aurora Vizcaíno, Alejandra Cechich, Mario Piattini. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 117-127. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Global Software Development (GSD) challenges current practices for requirements elicitation because some difficulties to achieve effective communication are aggravated by cultural diversity and the impossibility of having face-to-face meetings. Considering that effective communication would help reduce misunderstandings among stakeholders, and therefore help achieve more committed requirements, we propose here a methodology for global requirements elicitation focused on minimizing the most frequent problems in GSD. We introduce the proposal as well as the results of a controlled experiment, which show preliminary but promissory tendencies.

16 - Automated Assistance for Use Cases Elicitation from User Requirements Text. Shadi Moradi Seresht, Olga Ormandjieva. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 128-139. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract: Software Requirements Engineering addresses specific challenges which exist in the effort to gain an understanding of the nature of the engineering problem arising from user’s real-world needs and desires. This research is aimed at helping software analysts meet these challenges. The proposed methodology forms the basis of the automated process designed to capture the high-level system services and actors from the textual user requirements. This model is intended to serve as a basis for software Use-Case Model development, and can be used by analysts in their in-depth study of requirements text. The approach is rooted in the syntactical analysis and formalization of text written in natural language, and it is enriched with domain-related information provided by the Expert Comparable Contextual (ECC) models that are extracted from reusable domain-specific data models. We illustrate the applicability of our methodology on an order invoicing case study and demonstrate it with a prototype tool. The results of the validation of our methodology prove that such a tool for assisting the elicitation of use-case models from textual requirements is feasible.

17 - PARADIGMA: Uma Ferramenta de Apoio à Elicitação e Modelagem de Requisitos Baseada em Processamento de Linguagem Natural. Wilson Carlos da Silva, Luiz Eduardo Galvão Martins. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 140-151. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 0

Abstract: The requirements engineers use several techniques to assist them on the elicitation, analysis, specification, validation and requirements management process, but the number of those tools in this segment is still reduced. The requirements are the base for the software development, which, most of time is described in natural language. In this paper a tool called PARADIGMA is presented, it was developed to assist the requirements engineers to identify in a easier way classes, attributes, operations and relationships from the described requirements in natural language, and using the Natural Language Processing (more specifically the morphosyntatics taggers), generating a conceptual classes model of UML (Unified Modeling Language). Besides the mentioned characteristics above, the tool uses the concept of linguistic standards that facilitate the creation of diagrams closer to those created by human. The experimentation of the tool was made by professionals and professors who act in the area of Requirements Engineering. On the basis of the results, we come to the conclusion of the relevance of the tool PARADIGMA in the context of the Requirements Engineering.

Requirements Modeling

18 - Método ERi*c - Engenharia de Requisitos Intencional. Antonio de Padua Albuquerque Oliveira, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite, Luiz Marcio Cysneiros. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 155-166. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the Intentional Requirements Engineering Method - ERi*c, which is a contribution to Goal Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE). ERi*c is based on the intentionality concept as applied by the i* Framework. Intentionality reflects organization actors’ motivations and interests and is represented in the models by goals and softgoals. The singularity of the proposal consists in how to do the intentionality elicitation and how to model it in a way of mitigating i* models complexity. The ERi*c Method has six steps, which cover elicitation, modeling and analysis. The ERi*c Method is shown through “The Expert Committee System” (EC System) exemplar, a system to support the organization of a conference program.

19 - Um Processo Guiado para Levantamento e Modelagem de Requisitos de Aplicações Web Baseado em Objetivos e Casos de Uso. Dênis Zaniro, Sandra Fabbri. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 167-178. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Web application development differs from the development of traditional software in several significant ways. Therefore, Requirements Engineering for Web (WebRE) needs to be fitted in a proper way to deal with some distinctive aspects that must be addressed in the development. Aiming to be a good communication channel between stakeholders and developers, WebRE methods should be lightweight, but to be useful to developers and to allow metric application, they should have expressive modeling constructions. Aim: Based on this context, this paper presents a part of the method Web-SEMP – Web System Elicitation, Modeling and Planning, proposed to help in these three activities of a Web application development process. Method: The most quoted WebRE methods in the literature were analyzed aiming to reuse and to extend them to compose the proposal here presented. Results: The method Web-SEMP was applied in the development of a real web application and the results showed that the method gives support for a more systematic WebRE process. Conclusion: The results provide insights that the method can help to improve the development process quality of Web Applications.

20 - A Language-Based Approach to Variability Analysis. Bruno Santana da Silva, Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 179-190. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 3

Abstract: Ways to deal with differences among users and hardware platforms have been investigated by several subareas in Computer Science. Despite these research efforts, even today we lack a systematic approach to deal with variations that reflect differences in user goals, needs, preferences, and strategies to achieve goals. In this paper, we explore the variability of the user’s domain language to promote the requirements engineers’ reflection on the need to deal with variations and what strategies are adequate to deal with them further in system design, as it will be reflected in the user interface language. In the proposed approach, we take into account concerns involved in different contexts of use to better understand the dynamic of user goals variability during system usage, before considering how to achieve the user goals on user interface language.

Reuse and Traceability

21 - Uma abordagem semi-automática para a manutenção de links de rastreabilidade. Marcelio Leal, Mayara Figueiredo, Cleidson R. B. de Souza.. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 47-58. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 1

Abstract: Atualmente, uma grande parte das falhas que acontecem em projetos de software está relacionada aos requisitos, tanto na sua elicitação quanto na sua evolução. Assim, a gerência de requisitos adquire um papel muito importante em um projeto, visto que através dela é possível ter maior controle sobre os requisitos. Nesse sentido, a importância da evolução, manutenção e da validade dos requisitos do projeto é um fator decisivo para este controle. É neste momento que a rastreabilidade se faz útil. Através dela é possível estabelecer ligações entre os requisitos e os diversos artefatos produzidos, acompanhando assim a evolução do projeto. A proposta deste trabalho é apresentar uma abordagem semi-automática para a implementação da rastreabilidade de requisitos, descrevendo uma maneira de efetuar esta rastreabilidade de forma mais prática e que possa ser utilizada em diversos tipos de projetos de software.

22 - Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications. Nelly Condori-Fernández, Oscar Pastor, Maya Daneva, Alain Abran, Jaelson Castro. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 59-69. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability from Object Oriented requirements specifications by identifying potential primitives with a high level of reusability and applying a reuse indicator. These requirements are specified using OO-Method, an automatic software production method based on transformation models. We illustrate the application of our proposal in a Car Rental real system.

23 - Using Mediation Theory to Build a Requirements Conflict Resolution Model. Nan Ma, Tracy Hall, Trevor Barker, Ming Zhang. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 70-75. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 3

Abstract: Conflict is a common phenomenon in our daily life and as such conflict has an important impact on Requirements Engineering (RE). However, in the current RE literature, conflict is often addressed in terms of a technical issue leading to inconsistency in the requirements specification. Little attention is given to the socio-psychological aspects of the conflict. Furthermore, previous RE work typically views the resolution of conflicts in RE as a purely negotiationbased process, in which a requirements engineer acts as a representative of a developer site and negotiates with users. By drawing on the Information Systems and Conflict Resolution literature, we argue that conflict resolution in RE should be a mediated process, in which a requirements engineer acts as a mediator amongst different stakeholders. We introduce our narrative mediation theory and explain how it can be introduced into the field of RE.

24 - Um Framework para Avaliação de Episódios de Gestão de Conhecimento. Francisco Milton Mendes Neto, Pedro Fernandes Ribeiro Neto. Anais do WER08 - Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Setembro 12-13, 2008, pp 76-81. [pdf] [scholar] Downloads: 2

Abstract: Support for organizational knowledge management (KM) requires mechanisms for creation, mapping and transference of knowledge. Many organizations use computer tools (KM systems) for achieving these goals. However, in many situations the whole potential of these systems to transfer knowledge and foment organizational learning is not adequately used. This happens mainly due to the lack of effective evaluation of essential properties and prerequisites of specific contexts of use of KM systems (KM episodes). This paper fills in this gap by proposing a framework for supporting formal evaluation of KM episodes, which facilitates the identification of the specific set of prerequisites of a KM episode and the formal verification of its properties. The verification of properties makes possible to check which business goals are probably reached with basis in the set of satisfied prerequisites.

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